What does ad hoc mean? What is its usage? –Hong, Vietnam
Ad hoc is a word that originally comes from Latin and means “for this” or "for this situation." In current American English it is used to describe something that has been formed or used for a special and immediate purpose, without previous planning.
Ad hoc can be used as an adjective or an adverb. It is used more often as an adjective, especially in these expressions:
- ad hoc committee
- ad hoc group
- ad hoc basis
Below are some example sentences with ad hoc that help illustrate its meaning:
ad hoc used as an adjective
- The mayor appointed an ad hoc committee to study the project.
- We had to make some ad hoc changes to the plans.
- We'll hire more staff on an ad hoc basis.
ad hoc used as an adverb
- The decisions were made ad hoc.
I hope this helps.
This article is about the Latin phrase. For other uses, see Ad hoc (disambiguation).
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning "for this". In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to be able to be adapted to other purposes (compare with a priori).
Common examples are ad hoc organizations, committees, and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. In other fields, the term could refer, for example, to a military unit created under special circumstances, a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol (e.g. ad hoc network), a temporary banding together of geographically-linked franchise locations (of a given national brand) to issue advertising coupons, or a purpose-specific equation.
Ad hoc can also be an adjective describing the temporary, provisional, or improvised methods to deal with a particular problem, the tendency of which has given rise to the noun Adhocism. It also could mean shifting contexts to create new meanings or inadequate planning. 
According to The Chicago Manual of Style, familiar Latin phrases that are listed in Merriam-Webster, such as "ad hoc", should not be italicized.
Main article: Ad hoc hypothesis
In science and philosophy, ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses to a theory to save it from being falsified. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form.
Scientists are often skeptical of scientific theories that rely on frequent, unsupported adjustments to sustain them.
In the military
In the military, ad hoc units are created during unpredictable situations, when the cooperation between different units is suddenly needed for fast action, or from remnants of previous units which have been overrun or otherwise decimated.
Main article: Wireless ad hoc network
The term ad hoc networking typically refers to a system of network elements that combine to form a network requiring little or no planning.
- Howard, R. (2002), Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution, Perseus
- The dictionary definition of ad hoc at Wiktionary